Thinking Outside the Boxcar: Combined Remedies using Single Application of Multi-Functional Amendments
Case studies are presented that demonstrate efficacy of this combined remedies approach. The sustainability of the approach is also assessed by evaluation of economic viability, social productivity and environmental protection. The case studies include combined abiotic and biotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes compounds, combined reductive and microaerophilic treatment of chlorinated benzenes, and combined chemical oxidation and biodegradation of petroleum compounds. Case studies are supported with conventional concentration trends and advanced diagnostics including compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and genetic-based molecular biological tools (MBTs).