Extended Release Low Solubility Potassium Persulfate Laboratory and Field Applications

Monday, December 4, 2017: 3:50 p.m.
101 D (Music City Center)
Jennifer Lindsey , PeroxyChem LLC, Philadephia, PA
Patrick Hicks , Soil and Groundwater Remediation, PeroxyChem, Raleigh, NC
Brant Smith, Ph.D. , Soil and Groundwater, PeroxyChem, Philadelphia, PA
Brianna Desjardins , Soil & Grounwater Laboratory, PeroxyChem, Tonawanda, NY

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using activated Klozur SP® persulfate has been applied at thousands of sites to treat a wide assortment of environmental contaminants of concern. Potassium persulfate is another commercially available persulfate that, once activated, releases the same remediation potential as sodium persulfate but has several different key characteristics. Two of these critical characteristics are a theoretical solubility that is over an order of magnitude lower than sodium persulfate and the use of the potassium salt which would be beneficial at a limited number of sites that have regulatory guidance on sodium (Na) concentrations in groundwater.

Laboratory tests were conducted in a series of batch and column studies. Batch tests included comparing solubility under different conditions, and evaluating characteristics of several activation methods. Column studies were conducted evaluating the treatment efficacy of common aqueous phase contaminants such as MTBE and 1,4-dioxane, and potential longevity under difference treatment conditions.

Field application included hydraulic placement of activated Klozur KP at 3 locations to address dissolved petroleum constituents and chlorinated volatile organic compounds at a former drum storage area. The targeted vertical profile was between approximately 7 to 11 m below ground surface, where a relatively large contaminant mass was concentrated in a relatively small aquifer volume. Injected solutions included a total of 1,350 kg of Klozur KP and 200 kg of ferrous lactate. Post injection monitoring for 1 year indicated successful distribution of activated Klozur KP and resulted in reductions of up to 99% contaminant concentrations.

The laboratory and field data show that persulfate derived from potassium persulfate is capable of treating a multitude of contaminants of concern and that potassium persulfate exhibits key characteristics that can be used by design engineers and implementers for a variety of site specific applications.

Jennifer Lindsey, PeroxyChem LLC, Philadephia, PA
TBD


Patrick Hicks, Soil and Groundwater Remediation, PeroxyChem, Raleigh, NC
Patrick Hicks is the Technical Sales Manager for PeroxyChem, formerly FMC Environmental Solutions. He has more than 25 years of experience in applied microbiology, with significant experience in the design and implementation of a variety of environmental remedial technologies. Research and development of technologies has been conducted in laboratory, field pilot scale and full scale; however, he has focused on application of technology in the field. Hicks has supported numerous injection projects in the United States, South America, Australia, and Europe. The spectrum of injection sites supported includes aquifers ranging from sands to clays, and diverse product placement including electron donors, electron acceptors, and chemical oxidants.



Brant Smith, Ph.D., Soil and Groundwater, PeroxyChem, Philadelphia, PA
With over 15 years of experience with in situ remediation technologies, Dr. Brant Smith has made over 60 presentations at national and international conferences and his research have been published in journals including Environmental Science and Technology, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, and Journal of Environmental Engineering. Dr. Smith is a chapter co-author for “In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation.” He obtained a B.S. with the majors of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Economics from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and a M.S. and Ph.D in Civil Engineering from Washington State University.


Brianna Desjardins, Soil & Grounwater Laboratory, PeroxyChem, Tonawanda, NY
Ms. Desjardins manages operations of the Soil & Groundwater Laboratory supporting research and development of innovative remediation technologies. She is responsible for routine quantification of geochemistry variables used to estimate product applications world-wide.


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