Development of Klozur SP with a Built in Activator: Safe Storage / Mixing and Maintaining Treatment Effectiveness

Monday, December 4, 2017: 4:10 p.m.
102 A (Music City Center)
Brant Smith, Ph.D. , Soil and Groundwater, PeroxyChem, Philadelphia, PA
Patrick Hicks , Soil and Groundwater Remediation, PeroxyChem, Raleigh, NC
Brianna Desjardins , Soil & Grounwater Laboratory, PeroxyChem, Tonawanda, NY


Activated Klozur® persulfate has been implemented for over 10 years to successfully remediate sites impacted with a wide assortment of contaminants of concern ranging from petroleum hydrocarbons, oxidizable chlorinated solvents, and reducible organics such as carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The ability to treat different contaminants has been attributed to the activation method and the formation of the sulfate, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. Conventional methods of activating persulfate include iron chelates, alkalinity, heat, zero valent iron, and hydrogen peroxide. As these chemistries react with persulfate, it has required that the activator reagents be stored and mixed separately from the persulfate.

Certain sites can benefit from having the persulfate and activator delivered as a single bag and mixed into a single solution. However, activators can promote the decomposition of persulfate. This is the intended result in the subsurface needed to generate the oxidative and reductive radicals but should be eliminated or minimized when stored or once mixed into solution.


The objective of this work was to identify a blended activator-persulfate system that could be safely stored, transported, and batched together while still effectively treating the different contaminants of concern.


This presentation will discuss the existing methods of activating persulfate, conditions used to generate oxidative and reductive pathways, and then review key stability data and treatment efficacy of an all-in-one blend containing Klozur SP and a novel activation system. The stability data will show that the blend can be safely stored and transported. Stability and losses measured over time upon mixing will be compared to that of different organic activators. Finally the treatment efficacy of different activation systems in treating common contaminants of concern such as 1,4-dioxane, TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and benzene will be presented.

Keywords: ISCO, Klozur, persulfate, activation, organic

Slides in PDF
Brant Smith, Ph.D., Soil and Groundwater, PeroxyChem, Philadelphia, PA
With over 15 years of experience with in situ remediation technologies, Dr. Brant Smith has made over 60 presentations at national and international conferences and his research have been published in journals including Environmental Science and Technology, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, and Journal of Environmental Engineering. Dr. Smith is a chapter co-author for “In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation.” He obtained a B.S. with the majors of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Economics from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and a M.S. and Ph.D in Civil Engineering from Washington State University.

Patrick Hicks, Soil and Groundwater Remediation, PeroxyChem, Raleigh, NC
Patrick Hicks is the Technical Sales Manager for PeroxyChem, formerly FMC Environmental Solutions. He has more than 25 years of experience in applied microbiology, with significant experience in the design and implementation of a variety of environmental remedial technologies. Research and development of technologies has been conducted in laboratory, field pilot scale and full scale; however, he has focused on application of technology in the field. Hicks has supported numerous injection projects in the United States, South America, Australia, and Europe. The spectrum of injection sites supported includes aquifers ranging from sands to clays, and diverse product placement including electron donors, electron acceptors, and chemical oxidants.

Brianna Desjardins, Soil & Grounwater Laboratory, PeroxyChem, Tonawanda, NY
Ms. Desjardins manages operations of the Soil & Groundwater Laboratory supporting research and development of innovative remediation technologies. She is responsible for routine quantification of geochemistry variables used to estimate product applications world-wide.

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