Development of Klozur SP with a Built in Activator: Safe Storage / Mixing and Maintaining Treatment Effectiveness
Activated Klozur® persulfate has been implemented for over 10 years to successfully remediate sites impacted with a wide assortment of contaminants of concern ranging from petroleum hydrocarbons, oxidizable chlorinated solvents, and reducible organics such as carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The ability to treat different contaminants has been attributed to the activation method and the formation of the sulfate, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. Conventional methods of activating persulfate include iron chelates, alkalinity, heat, zero valent iron, and hydrogen peroxide. As these chemistries react with persulfate, it has required that the activator reagents be stored and mixed separately from the persulfate.
Certain sites can benefit from having the persulfate and activator delivered as a single bag and mixed into a single solution. However, activators can promote the decomposition of persulfate. This is the intended result in the subsurface needed to generate the oxidative and reductive radicals but should be eliminated or minimized when stored or once mixed into solution.
The objective of this work was to identify a blended activator-persulfate system that could be safely stored, transported, and batched together while still effectively treating the different contaminants of concern.
This presentation will discuss the existing methods of activating persulfate, conditions used to generate oxidative and reductive pathways, and then review key stability data and treatment efficacy of an all-in-one blend containing Klozur SP and a novel activation system. The stability data will show that the blend can be safely stored and transported. Stability and losses measured over time upon mixing will be compared to that of different organic activators. Finally the treatment efficacy of different activation systems in treating common contaminants of concern such as 1,4-dioxane, TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and benzene will be presented.
Keywords: ISCO, Klozur, persulfate, activation, organic